|Name of Plan||Reference||Identifies relationship between Māori and fresh water (Yes/No/Other)||Identifies role of Māori in freshwater management (Yes/No/Other)||Identifies issues / concerns for Māori
|Identifies methods of implementation to assist Māori in management of fresh water (Yes/No/Other)||Nature of methods
(refer to key at the end of this table)
|Bay of Plenty Regional Water and Land Plan||Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, operations, projects, education, consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|Canterbury Natural Resources Regional Plan||Chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, operations, projects, education, consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|Gisborne Regional Discharge to Land & Water Plan (2006)||Introduction and Chapter 7||Yes||Yes (lightly)||Yes (very broadly)||Yes – limited to Treaty of Waitangi principles and broad-brush introductory statements||Statutory, consultation, relationships, monitoring and information|
|Marlborough District Council Regional Plan (2003)||Chapters 3 and 6||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, operations, projects, education, consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|Nelson City Council Freshwater Plan||Chapters 4 and 5||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, projects, education, consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|Northland Water and Soil Plan||Chapters 4, 5 and 6||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, education, consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|Southland Proposed Regional Water Plan (2008)||Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, education, consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|Taranaki Freshwater Plan||Chapter 4||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, education, consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|Tasman District Regional Plan Water||Chapter 30||Yes||Yes (limited)||Yes||Yes (limited)||Statutory, education, consultation, relationships, monitoring and information|
|Waikato Regional Plan||Chapters 1, 2 3, 4||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, operations, projects, education, consultation, relationships, governance, levies, monitoring and information|
|Auckland Regional Plan Air Land Water||Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, operations, projects, education, consultation, relationships, governance, levies monitoring and information|
|Horizons Manawatu Regional Land Water Plan (2003)||Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5||Yes (limited)||Yes (limited)||Yes||Yes (limited description; reliance on rules)||Statutory, education, consultation, relationships, monitoring and information|
|Otago Regional Plan Water (2004)||Chapters 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, operations, projects, education, consultation, relationships, governance, levies monitoring and information|
|Regional Freshwater Plan for Taranaki||Part I, II (in particular Chapter 4), III, and IV||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, education consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|Waitaki Regional Plan||Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9||Yes||Yes||Yes (focus on allocation)||Yes||Statutory, education consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|Wellington Freshwater Plan (1999)||Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, education consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
|West Coast Proposed Regional Water Plan (2007)||Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Statutory, education consultation, relationships, governance, monitoring and information|
Reference key for “nature of methods” in table above
The Bay of Plenty Regional Water and Land Plan has a specific section afforded to kaitiakitanga (Chapter 2). A number of resource management issues of importance to tāngata whenua are identified in this part of the plan as follows:
The policies in the plan seek to deliver environmental outcomes that take into consideration the above mentioned issues. The rules framework is also thorough, with Māori cultural values assessment criteria for most discretionary activities. The policies establish appropriate objectives and methods of implementation, with explanations and principal reasons.
Of note, methods of implementation to assist in achieving the intent being the policy framework include an undertaking by EBOP to:
Chapters 4 (water quality), 5 (water quantity), 6 (beds and margins of lakes and rivers), and 7 (wetlands), all refer to the significance of tāngata whenua values and the legislative requirement for tāngata whenua to have involvement in resource management procedures.
Each chapter has an introduction, background, the statutory framework for management and resolution of each issue through objectives, policies and rules.
At 4.1.1, a specific section is devoted to Ngāi Tahu values. It states: “Ngāi Tahu seeks the following outcomes:
Links are made in Chapter 4 to the regional policy statement provision to … “protect wāhi tapu and other wāhi taonga of value to tāngata whenua”.
Section 4.3.4 refers to the Ngāi Tahu Freshwater Policy.
Section 184.108.40.206 acknowledges the significance placed on mauri, wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and mahinga kai. Section 220.127.116.11 refers to tāngata whenua values in and around lakes.
Reference is made throughout the plan to the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act (1998) and to Ngāi Tahu plans and strategies. Overall, it seems Ngāi Tahu have had significant involvement in the development of the Canterbury NRRP with tāngata whenua values well represented and clearly defined.
At 18.104.22.168, the plan identifies the relationships with iwi authorities. Principles have been incorporated from several sources including the reports of Māori working groups. Principles include:
There are links to the Gisborne District RPS with respect to Treaty of Waitangi principles.
Chapter 7 ‘Discharges of uncontaminated water to water’ contains the following objective and supporting policy:
Chapter 3 (fresh water) has an introduction that discusses the various freshwater resource management issues in the Marlborough region, followed by objectives, policies and methods of implementation. The following issues and policies are identified relevant to tāngata whenua interests:
Methods of implementation include rules, education, advocacy, liaison (in particular with tāngata whenua), monitoring and research.
Chapter 6 (tāngata whenua and heritage) specifies issues, objectives, policies and methods of implementation specific to tāngata whenua interests in the management of water. Methods of implementation include:
Chapter 4 – Resource Management Issues
RI (resource issue) 14 relates to tāngata whenua interests and sets out the following issues:
RI 18 – Freshwater Environment (section viii) states: “Fresh water is essential for survival and rivers are valued by many people for aesthetic, recreational, spiritual and cultural reasons.”
Chapter 5 – District Wide Objectives and Policies, sets out policies providing for the relationship of tāngata whenua with resources. In particular, policy 1.1.6 – water management, which states: “Make policy decisions on water management having regard to the provisions of resource management plans, such as eel management and iwi environmental management plans, that promote the sustainable use of water and associated resources.”
There is a cross reference to Nga Taonga Tuku Iho ki Whakatu Management Plan (Nelson Iwi Management Plan).
Anticipated environmental results include resource management decisions that include perspectives of Māori, increased management by iwi of their resources and iwi input into the present day management of natural resources.
DO 17 – Activities in the beds of rivers lakes and wetlands, refers to Nga Taonga Tuku Iho ki Whakatu Management Plan (Nelson Iwi Management Plan) – protection of wāhi tapu and the avoidance of adverse effects on the mauri of water resources, followed by objectives, policies and rules including monitoring and compliance to ensure cultural values are taken into consideration when dealing with water resources in the region.
Section 4 of the plan provides specific comment on resource management issues under the jurisdiction of the plan from an iwi perspective. It states that water is a significant resource to tāngata whenua; all water is taonga and mauri is contained in taonga.
Section 5 sets out the management approach of the Northland Regional Council to address resource management issues, including:
The involvement of tāngata whenua in the above recognises and provides for Māori and their culture and traditions (RMA, section 6) is set out in the issues, objectives, policies, methods of implementation and principle reasons for adopting of those objectives, policies and rules. This section of the plan covering tāngata whenua interests and involvement with resource management of water resources is very comprehensive.
Plan effectiveness in terms of cultural needs (Section 39.7) is measured as follows:
Importance of partnership with tāngata whenua (Ngāi Tahu) identified in the introduction of the plan.
Purpose of the plan is to recognise and provide for the relationship of Māori and their culture and traditions with water, lakes, rivers and wetlands.
Strong policy framework that identifies Māori cultural values as being important in decision-making procedures associated with water resources.
The principle elements identified as being important to tāngata whenua in relation to rivers, lakes, and wetlands include:
Rules framework provides for tāngata whenua interests.
The purpose of the plan is to assist the Taranaki Regional Council (TRC) to carry out its functions under the RMA to promote the sustainable management of the freshwater resources of the region. The plan identifies how freshwater resources of the region (both surface water and ground water) are to be managed.
It does this by identifying important issues from state of the environment monitoring relating to the use, development and protection of the freshwater resources of Taranaki. Objectives, policies and methods are set out for addressing these issues. Ongoing state of the environment monitoring enables the TRC to assess the effectiveness of the plan and review policy direction where necessary.
Tāngata whenua considerations/Māori cultural values are well canvassed throughout the plan. Chapter 4 specifically relates to tāngata whenua considerations. Issue 4.1 states: “Recognising and providing for the relationship of tāngata whenua and iwi and hapū of Taranaki and their culture and traditions, with their water, sites, wāhi tapu and other taonga.”
Principle issues addressed adequately through policy framework, rules, and methods of implementation include:
Methods of implementation include application of regional rules, consultation, participation of tāngata whenua in resource consent procedures, investigation of potential funding to assist tāngata whenua, and encouragement by TRC for iwi or hapū to participate in environmental monitoring.
Chapter 30 has an introduction which sets out the water resources of the Tasman region and discusses values associated with water. A specific section is afforded to discussion of tāngata whenua values. Here, the plan states (amongst other things):
A suite of issues, objectives and policies are then set out, but in terms of Māori cultural values, there is no specific objective other than avoiding adverse effects on ‘cultural values’.
Methods of implementation include statutory (primarily through rules (Chapter 31)), education and advocacy, financial contributions (incentives for wetland enhancement etc), and investigations and monitoring (to ensure that anticipated environmental outcomes are occurring and, in turn, measure the effectiveness of the plan).
Chapter 1 sets out approaches to resource management. Environment Waikato (EW) has chosen to develop a resource-based regional plan. The Waikato Regional Plan is an integrated plan covering the parts of the environment for which EW has functions under Section 30 of the RMA: for water, river and lake beds, land and soil, air, and geothermal resources (Section 22.214.171.124).
Policies provide direction and certainty to resource users, tāngata whenua, and the general public regarding the use, development and protection of natural and physical resources of the region.
Policy 10 – Consultation with tāngata whenua, provides that Assessment of Environmental Effects (AEEs) for resource consent applications include, where appropriate:
Section 1.2.5 provides broad implementation methods, including monitoring permitted activities, good practice guides, environmental education, economic incentives, assessment criteria and principles of good consultation.
Chapter 2 discusses matters of significance to Māori. The introduction sets out the statutory context for consideration of Māori cultural values and the key resource management issues of importance to Māori in the Waikato region. The chapter then covers the issues specific to each iwi in the Waikato region, including Hauraki, Raukawa, Waikato-Tainui, Ngāti Maniapoto and Ngāti Tuwharetoa. Water is highlighted as a key resource management issue for all iwi.
Section 2.3 – Tangata Whenua Relationship with Natural and Physical Resources, sets out at resource management issues with objectives and policies. Issues relating to water include:
Implementation methods in section 2.3.4 include:
Chapter 3 – Water Module, focuses on water resources, the issues, objectives, policies, rules, and anticipated environmental outcomes. Issue 3.1.1 states:
Objective 3.1.2: The management of water bodies in a way which ensures (a) that people are able to take and use water for their social, economic and cultural well-being; and (b) that significant adverse effects on the relationship tāngata whenua as kaitiaki have with water and their identified taonga such as wāhi tapu, and native flora and fauna that have customary and traditional uses in or on the margins of water bodies are remedied or mitigated.
Supporting policies are primarily scientifically based, eg, water classification. However, policy 6 under the heading ‘discharges’ seeks to ensure that the relationship of tāngata whenua as kaitiaki with water is recognised and provided for to avoid significant adverse effects and remedy or mitigate cumulative adverse effects on: (a) the mauri of water; (b) wāhi tapu sites; (c) other identified taonga.
Chapter 4 deals with river and lake bed resource management issues. Tāngata whenua interests are well canvassed.
The statutory context (RMA Part II) is set out in the introduction.
Section 1.7.6 refers to the importance of iwi planning documents.
Chapter 2.3 – Matters of Significance to Tāngata Whenua, provides five main policy directions:
These policy directions provide the basis for dealing with issues, and setting objectives, policies, rules and anticipated environmental outcomes within the plan. Tāngata whenua values for water resources are well canvassed.
Tāngata whenua “world view” is set out in Chapter 2.3. Relevant issues include:
Methods of implementation to address the above issues include:
The plan demonstrates a strong policy framework on the management of water resources and the consideration of Māori cultural values in this context.
There is limited discussion and recognition in the plan of tāngata whenua relationships with water, and interests in the management of water through the issues, objectives and policies. Statutory requirements to engage with tāngata whenua are only indirectly acknowledged with no specific mention of Part II. Both regulatory (primarily rules) and non-regulatory methods are used to achieve sound water management and consideration of tāngata whenua interests.
Chapter 4 – Kai Tahu ki Otago, has a thorough analysis of tāngata whenua relationship with water and the legislative requirements to take Māori cultural values into account. Issues of concern to Kai Tahu are clearly set out with a helpful link to relevant issues, objectives and policies throughout the rest of the plan.
Chapter 4 enables Chapters 6 (water quantity), 7 (water quality), 8 (beds and margins of lakes and rivers), 9 (groundwater) and 10 (wetlands) to focus on the science behind achieving good quality outcomes while cross-referencing to chapter 4 for tāngata whenua values.
Section 2.3 – Other Resource Management Documents, states that reference should be had to the Natural Resource Management Plan prepared by Kai Tahu ki Otago.
In Part II, Chapter 4, the plan states that it is important to recognise and provide for the relationship of tāngata whenua and iwi and hapū of Taranaki and their culture and traditions with their water, sites, wāhi tapu and other taonga. The principal issues identified are:
These are followed by objectives and supporting policies to address the principal issues identified. Methods of implementation include the application of regional rules, tāngata whenua consultation, provision for tikanga Māori in hearings procedures, support for iwi/hapū initiatives, planning assistance, funding, and encouraging tāngata whenua monitoring to measure the effectiveness of the plan.
The plan sets out in Chapters 1, 2 and 3 the legal framework and introduces the natural and physical resources and communities of the Waitaki catchment.
Chapter 4 provides an overview of requirements for water. A specific section is afforded to tāngata whenua cultural requirements for water.
Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 set out the key issues for water allocation, the policy framework, rules, and anticipated environmental outcomes. Tāngata whenua values are taken into consideration.
The plan mentions requirement to take into account the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act (1998) and that iwi management plans must be considered.
Chapter 1 provides a broad introduction to the area covered by the plan and its scope. Chapter 2 identifies key issues. In Section 2.1, the relationship of tāngata whenua with fresh water is identified as a key issue.
Chapter 4 sets out ‘general’ objectives and policies. Sections 4.1.and 4.2 relates to the relationship of tāngata whenua with fresh water.
More specific objectives, policies and rules are provided for in each of Chapters 5 (water quality and discharges to fresh water), 6 (water quality and the taking, use, damming or diversion of fresh water), and 7 (use of beds of rivers and lakes and development on the flood plain).
In section 8.1 the following methods have been identified to deliver on the issues, objectives and policies relating to the relationship of tāngata whenua with fresh water. Wellington Regional Council will:
Chapters 1, 2 and 3 introduce the plan, its purpose, the water resources within the West Coast region, and summarise the relevant legislative and policy framework. RMA Part II matters including provisions for Māori cultural values to be recognised and provided for are included throughout the plan.
Section 2.4 states that iwi management plans need to be considered for water management issues.
Chapter 4 specifically focuses on the Ngāi Tahu perspective on water resources. Various issues are identified.
Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 contain objectives, policies and rules which refer ‘generously’ to tāngata whenua values.
Chapter 13 sets out methods (other than rules) to achieve the objectives and policies of the plan, including: