The Ministry for the Environment contracted Pattle Delamore Partners Limited to prepare the mercury inventory. The inventory assesses the relative environmental impact of mercury-containing lamps compared to the impact of mercury from other natural and anthropogenic sources.
The report is part of a series of three reports that strengthen the evidence base for a potential industry-led voluntary product stewardship scheme. The other reports are Life Cycle Assessment of Product Stewardship Options for Mercury-Containing Lamps in New Zealand and New Zealand Lighting Industry Product Stewardship Scheme.
Prepared for the Ministry for the Environment by
Leila Chrystall and Andrew Rumsby
Pattle Delamore Partners Limited
This report has been prepared for the Ministry for the Environment for the objectives and to the scope set out in the report. This report constitutes a technical report and is not Government policy. Any opinions expressed are those of the authors and Pattle Delamore Partners Limited. Use of the information in the report by any other party or for any other purpose is at that party’s risk.
This report has drawn on opinions of others and data from the New Zealand and international literature on mercury-containing materials and devices, and mercury emissions from various natural and anthropogenic processes. The information has been accepted as provided and has not been independently checked. The data has been used in good faith but it could contain errors. Therefore PDP accepts no responsibility for errors in that data and consequent errors in derived emission estimates.
Information on the use of mercury, and natural and anthropogenic fate and transport of mercury, in New Zealand is incomplete. Accordingly, the inventory of emissions has gaps which, where possible, have been filled using overseas data, but in other cases must remain as gaps. The limitations of, and gaps in the data have been identified throughout the report.
In general, where there has been a choice in calculating estimates, New Zealand data has been preferred over overseas data, and official statistics or government reports preferred over other sources. Where there has been a range of such things as emission factors, mercury contents, and the like, middle values have been chosen for the calculations. Where UNEP Toolkit default emission factors have had to be used it is expected that these values will result in conservative (high) estimates.
The lack of reliable data may have resulted in over or under-estimates of particular types of emission sources, and of the natural and anthropogenic totals. While the major sources of natural and anthropogenic emissions are thought to have been accounted for, given the lack of reliable data for some sources it is not possible to estimate the likely error in the estimates.
A large number of people in a variety of organisations were consulted in compiling this report. Their assistance is acknowledged. People consulted include: Deborah Morley, Watercare Services Limited; Geoff Taylor, New Zealand Refinery Company; Chris Hendy, University of Waikato; David Craw, University of Otago; Dev Affleck, Mark Brockelsby, Nick Kim, Michelle Begbie and Marianna Tyler, Environment Waikato; John Reeve, New Zealand Food Safety Authority; David Gifford, New Zealand Steel; Joy Bier, Genesis Energy; Pieter Fransen, Waihi Gold Limited; Mark Wilhelm, Mercury Technology Services; Peter Robinson, Hill Laboratories Ltd; Richard Pointing, Lighting Council of New Zealand; Derek Richardson, Roger Henderson and Scott Kellner, Interwaste; Simon Court, Envirowaste; Trevor Berry, Solvent Refining Co; Craig Scarlett, New Zealand Aluminium Smelters Ltd and Nigel Newman, CRL Energy Ltd; Ed Murser, Carter Holt Harvey; Matthew Walker, TranzPower; Stephen Parker, Gas Association of New Zealand; Dr Brent Young, University of Auckland Chemical Engineering; Bill Armstrong, Todd Energy; Delia Tyson, Oceana Gold’s Macraes Gold Mine; Craig Stevenson, Contact Energy Geothermal Group; Dominic McCarthy and Judy-Ann Ansen, Auckland Regional Council, Gary Bedford, Taranaki Regional Council; Jim Foye, Maritime New Zealand; Stewart Ross and Matt Vesey, Electricity Commission; Steve Todd and Dean Edwards, New Zealand Statistics; Rob McLaren, University of Otago; Andrew Holyoake, Lincoln University; David Jenkins, University of Auckland; Peter Wildbore, Massey University; Andrea McMillan, Otago University; Garth Wyllie, Cosmetic Toiletry and Fragrance Association of New Zealand; Paul Bonetti, Golden Bay Cement; Greg Flauter, Holcim; Stu Pickmore, Greg Olsen, Chris Cunningham and others from NIWA; Dr Graham Simes, New Zealand Dental Association; Julian Brown, Christchurch City Council; Bruce Collier, Wellington City Council; Paul Dunford, Napier City Council; Robert McCrone, Wellington Water Management Ltd; Grant Occleston, Auckland City Council; Kaye Eason, Veritec; Peter Clinton, Scion Forest Research Staff from Biolab, Merck Ltd, Global Science, and Ajax Fine Chemicals; Staff from the Cement and Concrete Association of New Zealand; Staff at Plastics New Zealand Inc; and Staff at Christchurch, Wellington, Dunedin and Auckland hospitals.
The inputs of Craig McCauley and Graeme Proffitt of Pattle Delamore Partners Limited in carrying out research, and reviewing and providing overall direction for the project, respectively, are also acknowledged.