Can the product or service be redesigned to make less use of material inputs?
Are there less material-intensiveraw materials?
Can existing raw materials be produced or processed in less materially intense ways?
Would higher quality materials create less waste in later stages?
Can water consumption be reduced?
Can water, wastewater treatment, or waste disposal costs be allocated in budgets to encourage greater control?
Can yields be increased by better maintenance, control or other means?
Can waste be utilised?
Can products be made of smaller size, or a difference shape, to minimise material and packaging requirements?
Can the product or service be combined with others to reduce overall material intensity?
Can packaging be eliminated or reduced?
Can the product be reused, remanufactured, or recycled?
Can raw materials be produced or dried with less renewable energy?
Would substitute materials or components reduce overall energy intensity?
Can energy costs be directly allocated to budgets to encourage better control?
Can energy be exchanged between processes?
Can waste heat be utilised?
Can processes be integrated to create energy savings?
Can processes or building energy consumption be better monitored and controlled?
Can wastes from raw material production be reused or recycled?
Can process wastes be remanufactured, reused, or recycled?
Would separation of solid and liquid waste streams make recycling easier or reduce treatment costs?
Can product specifications be amended to enable greater use of recycled materials and components?
Can products be made of fewer or marked and easily recycled materials?
Can products be designed to facilitate customer use or revalorisation?
Can products be designed for easy disassembly?
Can product packaging be made more recyclable?
Can old products and components be remanufactured or reused?
Are there any opportunities to participate in waste exchange schemes?
Can energy be recovered from end-of-line products?
Can renewable or abundant materials be substituted for scarce, non-renewable, ones?
Can more use be made of resources that are certified as being sustainability produced?
Can more use be made of renewable energy in production and processing?
Are new buildings and refurbishments maximising use of passive heating and cooling?
Could better maintenance of boilers and other equipment improve energy efficiency?
Can processes of building be insulated more effectively?
Can more energy-efficient lighting be installed?
Is there scope for better energy housekeeping?
Can the energy efficiency of products in use be improved?
Can the product or services be combined with others to reduce overall energy intensity?
Can waste and end-of-life products be reused, remanufactured, recycled or incinerated?
Can products be made biodegradable or harmless so that less energy is required for disposal?
Can transport be reduced or greater use made of energy-efficient transport such as rail?
Are there incentives for employees to cycle, walk, use public transportation, or car-pool?
Can toxic dispersion be reduced or eliminated by using alternative raw materials or producing them differently?
Are products designed to ensure safe distribution, use, and disposal?
Can harmful substances be eliminated from production processes?
Can harmful substances generated in use be reduced or eliminated?
Can any remaining harmful substances be recycled or incinerated?
Are remaining harmful substances properly handled during production and disposal?
Are equipment and vehicles properly maintained so that emissions are kept to a minimum?
Extend product durability
Can products or components be made more modular to allow easy upgrading?
Can materials or processes be altered in order to improve longevity?
Can whatever aspects of the product that limit durability be redesigned?
Can maintenance of the product be improved?
Can customers be informed or educated about ways of extending product durability?
What services are customers really getting from your product? Can this be provided more effectively or in completely different ways?
What services will customers need in the future? Can you design new or existing products to meet them?
Is your product providing other services as well as the most obvious one? Can these be accentuated or enhanced?
Can the product or service be integrated or synchronised with others to provide multi-functionally?
Can customer’s disposal problems be eliminated by providing a take-back service?
Can the properties of the product be accentuated or developed for greater customer value?
Can products be designed to facilitate customer reuse or revalorisation?
Can products be redesigned to make distribution and logistics easier?
Can the product be made easier for customers to dispose of?
Can production be localised to both enhance service and reduce transport needs?
Can products be transported or distributed by alternative means to enhance customer value and reduce environmental impacts?
Source: Adapted from Birkeland (2002).